Anne Borkowski, MD

Reproductive Endocrinologist
Infertility Specialist

4250 Dempster St.
Skokie, IL, 60076

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Evaluation of the Tubes and Uterus


In the hysterosalpingogram, radio opaque dye is injected into the tubes and its passage to the uterus is observed via x-ray examination. It there is an obstruction; the dye will flow to the point of blockage and stop which is clearly visible on x-ray.

Once the egg is released from the follicle it must travel unimpeded to the end of the fallopian tube following the same path as the dye. Blockage of the dye is indicative of the inability of the eggs to pass through the tubes. Some deformities in the uterus can also be observed using the hysterosalpingogram.

These include fibroids, polyps, adhesions, a bicornuate uterus, or other congenital structural abnormalities. The hysterosalpingogram is performed as an outpatient and is associated with minimal discomfort.


The hysterosonogram allows the physician to clearly visualize the inside of the uterus using ultrasound. The uterus is first expanded with saline solution administered through a small "tube" inserted through the vagina and cervix. Next, the vaginal probe ultrasound is inserted through the vagina, the cervix and into the uterus.

Expansion of the uterus with saline increases visibility making it easier to see/diagnose uterine disorders such as fibroids and polyps. Appointments for the hysterosonogram are scheduled so that the patient is not menstruating at the time of the test.


The hysteroscope permits a more detailed analysis of the uterus than the hysterosalpingogram. In the hysteroscopic procedure, a small fiber optic "tube" is placed inside the uterus and the uterus is expanded with gas making the lining more visible to the physician. Abnormalities in the uterus including polyps or fibroids can be seen with the hysteroscope.


The lining of the uterus must develop to the proper size to accept the developing embryo and the ultrasound is used to measure its thickness. Internal organs such as the uterus and the ovaries can be seen and oftentimes, uterine masses, such as fibroids are visible.